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Free College – idea that Bernie Sanders Help to generalize And Joe Biden Partially adopted It offers two main promises.

The first is that by making all public colleges free of charge, the policy would eliminate a significant cost to the many struggling Americans. The second is that more students from lower-income families will graduate from college.

But this second promise was not tested. Some experts believe the cost The central reason Too many students fail to complete college. Others think The poor quality of many colleges and the lack of student preparation are among the biggest factors. If the second group is right, then free college will end up being an expensive disappointment, and not much different from the complex tax cuts that only flow to families with college-age children.

This week, a team of economic researchers – Joshua Angrest and David Autor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Amanda Ballet of Harvard University – A study released It offers some of the best early evidence on this issue.

It’s an important topic because college degrees are important Very valuable. Obviously, a degree is not a guarantee of success, but a guarantee of graduates Earn much more, Live long And the They are likely to be happy With their lives not graduates. “The revenue from the college is very large,” Autor told me. Wealthy parents, well aware of the benefits, usually insist their children finish college. Many middle-class and poor people never get out.

Several years ago, the three economists and the Susan Thompson Buffett Foundation established A randomized clinical trial, Such as those used to evaluate new drugs or vaccines. Some high school students received a generous scholarship – often covering the full cost of college – from the institution, while others did not. Then the researchers tracked down the two groups.

The results are surprisingly mixed. The scholarship appears to raise graduation rates: among students who plan to enter a four-year college, 71 percent of scholarship recipients graduate within six years. Only 63 percent of the students who did not receive a scholarship graduated. Gains were greater among non-white students, poor students, and students whose parents had not attended college. All this supports the arguments of the Free College advocates.

But not every result. The grant had no apparent effect on the graduation rates of the community colleges. This is a sign of the quality of education Bigger problem In many colleges two-year tuition bills.

What’s the point? Angrest said the National Free College Program would be too expensive. And many more benefits It will flow to high income students It will likely expire anyway. But a targeted program, which focuses on low-income students, could have a major impact while leaving more money available for other priorities, be it healthcare or climate change – or Invest more money In the quality of education in community colleges.

For more: Biden Had suggested A significant increase in federal financial aid for higher education, which focuses on families earning less than $ 125,000 (or nearly 75 percent of lower income earners). President Trump Had suggested Big cuts in financial aid as well as some increases in funding for two-year colleges.

The latest installment of the Times newspaper investigation of Trump’s finances He explains how the TV show “The Apprentice” saved him more than a decade ago, providing his financial lifeline while he was struggling. It turns out that his genius was not running a company. He made himself famous – famous on the Trump scale – and took advantage of that fame.

The Republican Party’s lack of reaction: Republican lawmakers – including Senator Mitch McConnell – Her reaction was almost complete silence To the revelation that Trump paid only $ 750 in federal income taxes in both 2016 and 2017, and that his business is rife with debt.


The first presidential debate, moderated by Chris Wallace of Fox News, Tonight starts at Eastern 9. It will last 90 minutes and will include six themes selected by Wallace: Candidate Records. Supreme court; Coronavirus Economy; Race and urban violence; And election integrity. Wallace said he would not verify the candidates during the debate.

Corresponding preparation: times I looked at how Biden prepared. Trump card He had aides and advisors to pose questions, Often on the go.

Million people around the world He has now died from confirmed coronavirus cases. It’s a staggering tally – more than the estimated number of people who have died from malaria, influenza, cholera and measles, combined, over the same period. And the true number of coronavirus deaths is almost certain to be higher.

The United States, with 4 percent of the world’s population, has it It suffered more than 20 percent of the deaths.

In other virus developments:


  • Two fast-moving fires in California killed three people More than 67,000 acres have been burned since Sunday.

  • The Times spoke to 16 women received gynecological care In an immigration detention center in Georgia, and they found that their doctor often recommended surgery when it was not necessary.

  • Said a juror in the case of Briona Taylor, Kentucky Attorney General Distortion of grand jury deliberations He failed to offer the committee an option to bring charges against the two officers who were shot dead, according to the jury lawyer.

  • Maryland County Reaches $ 20 Million Settlement with the William H Green family, A handcuffed black man shot and killed by a police officer in January. It is one of the largest settlements in a murder case by the police.

  • The Pakistani authorities have condemned former President Asif Ali Zardari on the date Money laundering charges. His supporters said the accusations were part of a broader trend targeting politicians opposed to Prime Minister Imran Khan.

  • Live live: Ang Rita Sherpa earned the Snow Leopard nickname for his agility, and climbed the world’s highest mountain, Mount Everest, 10 times without using supplemental oxygen. He started his mountaineering career as a pregnant woman when he was 15 years old and later became a popular mountain guide. He passed away at the age of 72.

If this year wasn’t extraordinary enough, imagine the chaos that would ensue if Trump and Biden tie up the 269th to 269th Electoral College. This is the default map – With Trump holding Pennsylvania, while Biden won in Arizona and Wisconsin – appears.

The Twelfth Amendment calls for the newly elected House of Representatives to break the tie in January – but not by a majority of votes. Instead, each state’s delegation in the House of Representatives would get one vote, and a candidate who received 26 votes wins the election. Republicans currently maintain 26 delegations, and two delegations are split evenly.

This week, Nancy Pelosi, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, asked Democrats in Congress to consider the possibility of a tie when determining how campaign resources would be spent. I mentioned Politico. When in doubt, she was suggesting that Democrats focus on the delegations of states they could turn, such as Montana and Alaska, where they only have one representative.

The truth is that in most scenarios where Democrats controlled 26 state delegations, Biden would also have comfortably won the election. But you can understand why Pelosi was thinking about this possibility: In 2020, the out of the ordinary became the norm.

To read more about a potential tie, I recommend This blog post is for 2011 By political scientist Matt Glassman.

New polls: Yesterday was another strong day for Biden, As Nate Cohn of The Times explains in his journal Polls Daily.

The small dishes that often accompany a Korean meal are a delicious way to add texture and flavor to your meal. During the Joseon Dynasty in Korea, which lasted from 1392 to 1910, the court served several daily meals to the king, including Royal table consisting of 12 banchan.

To get started making your own food, try food writer Eric Kim The gochujang-glazed eggplant recipe. Thinly sliced ​​green onions are sautéed in olive oil, which adds delicious onion flavor to a salty, spicy and sweet dish. Balance it out with a bowl of white rice.


After a short season ends, the day begins play-off matches in Major League Baseball. For the first time, 16 teams are entering the post-season period – a departure from the usual 10. ESPN has it Evidence breaks the difference. To summarize the highlights of the regular season, click here.

The NHL Qualifier ends: Defeated Tampa Bay Lightning Team The Dallas StarsFrom four to two matches to win the second Stanley Cup, in a season flipped by the Coronavirus pandemic.


What do “Tropic Thunder”, “The Office”, “Mad Men”, “Mary Poppins” “, and” Saturday Night Live “have in common? They have all used black face at one point or another. Collected cultural writer Aisha Harris A guide to black face in the twenty-first century A categorical criticism that breaks down the reasons for its persistence in Hollywood, from “trying to mock” to “just because.”

“It’s a disservice when creators and streaming services try to erase evidence of their use of black face from the internet,” she wrote. “With this project, I tried to do the opposite: to bring the modern aspects of this American tradition to light, to try to understand them and decipher what they reveal about Hollywood’s relationship to racism.”